Tafsir Ibn Kathir -> Surah At-Taubah -> Exposing Hypocrites' Fright and Fear

Allah describes to His Prophet the fright, fear, anxiety and nervousness of the hypocrites,

﴿يَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِإِنَّهُمْ لَمِنكُمْ﴾

(They swear by Allah that they are truly of you), swearing a sure oath,

﴿وَمَا هُم مِّنكُمْ﴾

(while they are not of you), in reality,

﴿وَلَـكِنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ يَفْرَقُونَ﴾

(but they are a people who are afraid), and this is what made them swear.

﴿لَوْ يَجِدُونَ مَلْجَئاً﴾

(Should they find a refuge), such as a fort in which they hide and fortify themselves,

﴿أَوْ مَغَـرَاتٍ﴾

(or caves), in some mountains,

﴿أَوْ مُدَّخَلاً﴾

(or a place of concealment), a tunnel or a hole in the ground, according to the explanation given by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Qatadah,

﴿لَّوَلَّوْاْ إِلَيْهِ وَهُمْ يَجْمَحُونَ﴾

(they would turn straightway thereto with a swift rush) away from you because they associate with you unwillingly, not because they are fond of you. They prefer that they do not have to mix with you, but necessity has its rules! It is because of this that they feel grief, sadness and sorrow, seeing Islam and its people enjoying ever more might, triumph and glory. Therefore, whatever pleases Muslims brings them grief, and this is why they prefer to disassociate themselves from the believers. Hence Allah's statement,

﴿لَوْ يَجِدُونَ مَلْجَئاً أَوْ مَغَـرَاتٍ أَوْ مُدَّخَلاً لَّوَلَّوْاْ إِلَيْهِ وَهُمْ يَجْمَحُونَ ﴾

(Should they find a refuge, or caves, or a place of concealment, they would turn straightway thereto with a swift rush.)

﴿وَمِنْهُمْ مَّن يَلْمِزُكَ فِي الصَّدَقَـتِ فَإِنْ أُعْطُواْ مِنْهَا رَضُواْ وَإِن لَّمْ يُعْطَوْاْ مِنهَا إِذَا هُمْ يَسْخَطُونَ ﴾

﴿وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ رَضُوْاْ مَآ ءَاتَـهُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَقَالُواْ حَسْبُنَا اللَّهُ سَيُؤْتِينَا اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ وَرَسُولُهُ إِنَّآ إِلَى اللَّهِ رَغِبُونَ ﴾

(58. And of them are some who accuse you concerning (the distribution of) the alms. If they are given part thereof, they are pleased, but if they are not given thereof, behold! They are enraged!) (59. Would that they were content with what Allah and His Messenger gave them and had said: "Allah is sufficient for us. Allah will give us of His bounty, and so will His Messenger. We implore Allah (to enrich us).'')